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Thinking of research methods in homeopathy research

Reflecting on the Starting to think about research methods material, I start to think about which methods I’d like to explore in the next two weeks.

So, considering the first question, which is: “What kind of topics are you interested in researching?”- I’m interested in homeopathy research.

  • What initial research questions might be starting to emerge for you?

As a question of research in homeopathy, it would be:

“How people with chronic conditions react to hemopathic treatment?”


What are you interested in researching – people, groups, communities, documents, images, organisations? The answer is: people, groups, communities.

  • Do you have an initial ideas for the kinds of methods that might help you to gather useful knowledge in your area of interest? No. The research involves a number of components, which in combination constitute a research design.
  • What initial questions do you have about those methods? What don’t you understand yet? I do not yet understand what type of design to use in my future research.
  • Do you perceive any potential challenges in your initial ideas: either practical challenges, such as gaining access to the area you want to research, or the time it might take to gather data; or conceptual challenges; such as how the method you are interested in can produce ‘facts’, ‘truths’, or ‘valuable knowledge’ in your chosen area?

The answer is: practical challenges, such as gaining access to the area I want to research.

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Research Methods and Methodologies in Education. London, Sage

If your interest in primarily in educational research, we recommend the following textbook:

Arthur, J., Waring, M., Coe, R. and Hedges, L. (eds) (2012). Research Methods and Methodologies in Education. London, Sage.

There are two main reasons this book has been chosen. First, it is structured in a helpful way, divided into three ‘dimensions’: research designs, data collection tools, and analysis. This is really useful for getting a handle on the stages in which particular approaches or ideas are appropriate.

Second, it introduces a very wide range of approaches. By necessity, this means it cannot go very deeply into any one approach. However, it does give you signposts for the sorts of questions and projects that can be tackled using each, and suggestions about further reading. It addresses several aspects of online research. Importantly, each chapter is written by a researcher experienced with the approach they are writing about. This means you get ‘first hand’ accounts from researchers who have ‘been there and done that’.

For clarification, we are not requiring you to buy this book, or suggesting that it is necessary to complete this course. However, if you are primarily interested in educational research and want to take research methods seriously, using this book will serve as a good accompaniment to the next few weeks, and allow you to develop your understanding of different approaches.

Social Research Methods course in Edinburgh

The academic team designing this course work in digital education and digital sociology, so you’ll probably find that some of the examples and discussions might tend towards the interests of these particular disciplines. Nevertheless, the underlying ethos of this course, which is to foreground key conceptual, methodological, and ethical issues and challenges in research, will, we hope, be interesting and relevant to a broad range of disciplines, practitioners, students, and indeed anyone with an interest in the kind of thinking that underpins social research.

They also want to stress the Introduction in Introduction to Social Research Methods.

This course is designed primarily for those new to academic ways of approaching research methods. If you are a student pursuing research, this course will hopefully be a good opening to the field of social research methods, but it certainly won’t be easy, and nor will it provide you with everything you need. It should serve as a way of identifying specific areas that you’ll want to examine further. If you are an established researcher or academic, we welcome you! However, bear in mind that much of the approach in this course will be directed towards ‘first steps’ in research. You will likely have different perspectives on methods from those portrayed in the course materials, and the most productive way of contributing will be to encourage constructive discussion, particularly for those new to social research.

Finally, and very importantly, this course will have many more materials, resources, and activities than you can realistically engage with in the suggest time commitment. This course has not been designed for you to step through each section in a linear fashion. Rather, you are encouraged to choose your own path; decide which topics to focus on, choose readings and materials that interest you, and engage in activities that you feel will be personally beneficial. Each section provides guidance for how you can work through the materials, but, ultimately, the choice is yours.

 

Despre beneficiile vitaminelor hidrosolubile- Complexul de vitamine B

Vitaminele si mineralele alcatuiesc impreuna grupul micronutrientilor, reprezentand substante ce nu pot fi sintetizate de catre organism, deci , trebuie procurate din alimentatie. Ele nu au valoare calorica si sunt necesare in cantitati mici, spre deosebire de macronutrienti (proteine, glucide, lipide),pentru a indeplini functiile fundamentale in cadrul proceselor vitale.

Vitamina B1-Tiamina

Este larg raspandita in alimente, cantitatea cea mai importanta gasindu-se in carnea de porc; cantitati mari se mai gasesc si in cerealelel integrale, drojdia de bere, cartofi si carnea de peste.


Carenta de vitamina B1 se manifesta sub forma a trei sindorame diferite:

  • boala beri-beri
  • beri-beri acuta
  • encefalopatie

In tarile in curs de dezvoltare deficienta vitaminei B1 este datorata aportului alimentar scazut (prin consumul unor mari cantitati de orez decorticat).In acelasi timp, in tarile dezvoltate, este secundara alcoolismului sau lipsei de suplimentare cu tiamina la pacientii cu o nutritie precara sau cu un necesar crescut (activitate fizica crescuta sau la adolescenti).

Toxicitatea vitaminei B1 apare rar.

Vitamina B2-riboflavina

Este prezenta mai ales in produsele lactate, carne, visecere, oua, cerealele integrale.

Carenta de vitamina B2 nu este fatala, pe de o parte, deoarece vitamina B2 se gaseste in marea majoritate a alimentelor,iar  pe de alta parte fiindca riboflavina este eficient reutilizata.

Hipovitaminoza se manifesta prin diferite afectiuni, printre care si  dermatita seboreica.

Toxicitatea vitaminei B2  nu a fost descrisa in practica clinica.

Vitamina B3 (niacina)

Este un termen folosit generic pentru doi compusi organici, care intra in compozitia NAD si NADP.

Principalele surse de vitamian B3 sunt reprezentate de produsele de carne si peste. Cantitati mari se mai gasesc in legume si cerealele imbogatite , iar porumbul si orezul contin cantitati foarte mici.

Carenta de vitamina B3 se manifesta prin slabiciune musculara, anorexie si eruptii cutanate.

Vitamina B12 (ciancobalamina) este un compus cristalin complex ce contine un atom de cobalt. Dintre mai multi compusi cu actiune similara, cei mai activci sunt ciancobalamina si hidroxicobalamina.

Sursele alimentare de vitamina B12 sunt exclusiv de origine animala: ficat, rinichi, carne slaba, oua, lapte si branza.

Carenta de vitamina B12 apare rar in aportul alimentar scazut. In cazul carentei de B12, o bună variantă la care poți apela este B12 Vital, un supliment alimentar proaspăt lansat în România și disponibil în principalele lanțuri de farmacii din țară. Producatorul acestuia este WÖRWAG Pharma, o companie germană cu renume foarte bun în piață.


Toxicitatea vitaminei B12 nu a fost descrisa in practica clinica curenta.

Vitamina B5

Este larg  raspandita in organism. Cantitati mari se gasesc in ficat, rinichi, cereale, legume si carne, iar cantitati mai mici in lapte, fructe si vegetale. Carenta apare rar, iar toxicitatea este neglijabila.

Vitamina B6

Este larg raspandita in alimente, iar carenta este rara.

 

De unde ne procuram vitaminele?

Vitaminele sunt substante cu structura complexa (compusi organici) care nu pot fi sintetizate dec atre organism, insa a caror prezenta in corpul uman este absolut obligatorie pentru indeplinirea unor functii esentiale ale acestuia.

Fiecare vitamina are anumite roluri specifice in organism.

Vitamina A, se gaseste in produsele animale, de obicei in asociere cu lipidele (de exemplu in produsele lactate si in ficat), dar si in margarina. Precursorii vitaminei A (carotenoizii) se gasesc in plantele colorate (fructe si legume galbene si rosii). In timpul prepararii termice la temperaturi inalte (frigere) sau prin expunerea la lumina, se pierde o mare cantitate de vitamina A.

Complexul de vitamine B, include: vitaminele B1, B5, B6 s B12.

Vitamina B12 se gaseste exclusiv in surse alimentare de origine animala: ficat, rinichi, carne slaba, oua, lapte si branza. Vitamina B12 nu sufera modificari in timpul prepararii termice.

O buna varianta de vitamina B12 este B12 Vital, un supliment alimentar disponibil în principalele lanțuri de farmacii din țara. Producătorul suplimentului  este WÖRWAG Pharma, o companie germană cu renume foarte bun în piață.

Vitamina B1, este foarte raspandita in alimente , cantitatea cea mai semnificativa gasindu-se in carnea de porc. Cantitati mari se mai gasesc si in cerealele integrale, peste, cartofi si drojdia de bere. Caldura, radiatiile ionizante si oxidarea distrug vitamina B1, care este in schimb stabila in produsele inghetate.

In cazul vitaminei B3, principalele surse alimentare sunt reprezentate di carnea de peste.

Vitamina B5 este larg raspandita in organism. Cantitati mari  se gasesc in ficat, rinichi, cereale, legume si carne, iar cantitati mai mici in lapte, fructe si vegetale.

Vitamina B6 este larg raspandita in alimente, gasindu-se in cantitati mari in carne, visecere, cereale integrale si vegetale.

Ce cantitati de vitamine trebuie sa consumam?

In ultimii ani, tot mai multe cercetari stiintifice s-au preocupat cu stabilirea canitatilor de vitamine pe care trebuie sa le consume fiecare persoana in parte (copilulsi adolescentul, femeia gravida sau in perioada de lactatie, etc) pentru a-si mentine o stare optima de sanatate.

Se stie astfel, ca oricare dintre vitamine se poate caracteriza, mai mult sau mai putin frecvent prin aparitia deficientelor (daca aportul alimentar este insuficient sau absorbtia intestinala este defectuoasa).

Astfel, un lucru mai putin cunoscut este faptul ca si consumul excesiv de vitamine poate determina efecte toxice, mai ales in cazul vitaminelor care se depoziteaza in ficat si tesutul adipos. Vitaminele hidrosolubile nu se depoziteaza in organism, eventualul surplus fiind eliminat pe cale digestiva sau renala.