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Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed … what does it mean?

At its most fundamental, qualitative research tends to focus on the specific, the individual, the particular; while quantitative research looks for the generalisable, and large amounts of data and/or participants. But, along with these, qualitative and quantitative research are often taken to imply different sorts of orientations towards the nature of knowledge, and even reality.

In general, the term ‘mixed-methods’ is used to describe methodologies that combine qualitative and quantitative research in some way. Different researchers take different positions on how to approach such mixing of methods – Coe (2012) describes these positions as ‘incommensurable’, ‘compatible’, or ‘pragmatic’.

Incommensurability

Researchers may focus on the philosophical or epistemological implications of the approaches available, and consider them to imply different sorts of world views that would be difficult or impossible to combine in a single project.

They would therefore approach the idea of a mixed-methods project by thinking first about the implications for knowledge of methods they might use, and choosing those that align in a way that allows them to (fairly) easily describe what sorts of ‘truth claims’ they want to make in your research.

Be aware of whether research you are engaging with critically evaluates its method(s) – even a single-method project needs to carefully articulate what the implications, strengths and weaknesses of that method are.

Compatibility

Other researchers look for approaches that are (or can be made) consistent with each other regardless of the kind of data they generate.

Depending on their epistemological position, they may consider, for example, how to conduct interviews that result in ‘generalisable’ data. If they can satisfy themselves and their readers that approaches, including those across the qualitative/quantitative divide, are compatible, coherent truth claims can be made even when a wide range of methods are in use. more »

Research Question design

There are a number of ways that survey questions may be problematic. You should not ask questions that your respondents are unlikely to know the answers to, or imply a demand for an unreasonable degree of precision.

  • If you provide a set range of answers for participants, make sure that they are clear about whether you are requesting that they select only one answer from the set, or that they should indicate all that apply. Be careful that the language you use to express the question is not leading, or loaded.
  • Avoid value-laden language which might imply what you expect to be the ‘correct’ answer. Only ask one question at a time. If you find that the text of a closed question (one for which you have provided a series of possible answers for the respondent) contains words like ‘and’ or ‘or’ you may be asking your survey participants to give one answer to two or more different questions. Avoid complex constructions, such as double-negatives, in your wording.
  • more »

Reflecting on Research Design

It is useful to think of research as involving a number of components, which in combination constitute a research design. However, before we begin these explorations, it may be useful to reflect on the broader research design considerations into which methods would be situated:

  1. Research question(s): the specific question(s) that the researcher believes can be answered using particular methods. For example: How do non-asian teenage fans of Japanese anime construct identity online?
  2. A conceptual framework: the theoretical perspective that underpins the research. For example: Cultural practices online offer rich and specific ways of (co-)constructing varied identities, offering valuable insights into the lives of teenagers. 
  3. A methodology: the application of methods, specifying which approaches will be used, why, when, and for what purpose. For example: An ethnographic approach, involving participant observation and interviews, would allow the researcher to gain ‘authentic’ experience of community participation, and in-depth responses from participants that would develop the understanding of identity. 
  4. Ethical considerations: identifying potential problems and risks produced by the methodology. Key here are potential risks to research participants. For example: How do members of a public online group consent to be observed by a researcher? How can subsequent analysis of the ethnographic data protect participant identities?

Question design

There are a number of ways that survey questions may be problematic. You should not ask questions that your respondents are unlikely to know the answers to, or imply a demand for an unreasonable degree of precision.

If you provide a set range of answers for participants, make sure that they are clear about whether you are requesting that they select only one answer from the set, or that they should indicate all that apply.

 

Event Planning Survey

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Here is a simple survey about planning an event!

 

Găsește-ți adevărata sursă de motivație cu Self Transformer!

Stimularea, inspirația, conducerea, entuziasmul, impulsul și forța motrice sunt doar câteva din sinonimele pe care le-am găsit când am căutat în dicționar cuvântul “motivare”.

Una dintre premisele succesului pe care Narcis Cernea o menționează în Self Transformer si care constă în îndeplinirea oricărei provocări este motivarea. Fără ea, orice provocare, în cele din urmă va deveni prea descurajantă pentru a o putea vedea pană la finalizare.

Cu toții trebuie să găsim acest lucru special, ceva care ne duce dincolo de obișnuit. Trebuie să creștem nu numai să fim superficiali.

 Scopul este de a identifica o provocare, de a evoca pasiunea și sensul din viața ta. Este important să conștientizezi dacă ești motivat.  Prin urmare, poți transforma grăsimea în mușchi, printr-o alimentație sănătoasă și echilibrată.

 Piramida alimentară

Imagini pentru piramida alimentara

Piramida alimentară reprezintă o exprimare grafică a standardelor nutriționale, a cantităților și a tipurilor de alimente ce trebuie să fie consumate zilnic pentru a menține starea de sănătate și pentru a reduce riscul de dezvoltare a diferitelor patologii legate de alimentație.

În linii generale, piramida alimentară cuprinde următoarele grupe:

  1. Pâine, cereale, orez și paste (6-11 porții pe zi)
  2.  Legume și vegetale (3-5 porții pe zi)
  3.  Fructe (2-4 porții pe zi)
  4.  Lapte și derivate (2-3 porții pe zi)
  5.  Carne, peste, ouă (2-3 porții pe zi)
  6. more »